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12 X 12 Featured Author November 2019 – Lisa Rogers

12 x 12 Featured Author November 2019 – Lisa Rogers

12 x 12 Author Lisa RogersWhen I was a young picture book reader, I lingered on the illustrations more than the text, imagining that I was in those worlds that were just hinted at on the page. With my debut picture book, I’ve now been privileged to witness for the first time how the world I made with words came to life.

When I saw illustrator Chuck Groenink’s images, I was astounded at how deep and complex that world was—something I never could have imagined. I love that the 16 WORDS cover attributes its creation to both of us. (Of course, that credit first goes to its brilliant editor, Anne Schwartz, whose vision ever so gently and deftly shaped it into being).

I didn’t include a single art note for 16 WORDS, nor for my forthcoming fiction picture book, HOUND WON’T GO (Albert Whitman, 2020). But in 12 x 12 webinar after webinar (and gems they are!) one of members’ top questions is whether to art note or not. I decided to ask other 12 x 12 authors (and one author-illustrator) debuting in 2019 how they approached this perennial conundrum. They generously shared how they use art notes.

Way #1: As an orientation to the story’s world.

In Ishta Mercurio’s SMALL WORLD, illustrated by Jen Corace (Abrams, 2019) Nanda’s world expands from the circle of her mother’s arms to the final image, where she views Earth from space. For this multilayered concept book, some guideposts were in order.

“I don’t think of art notes as being for the artist; I think of them as being for the editor, to help them visualize the manuscript and to aid in guiding their choice of illustrator,” Ishta says. “In SMALL WORLD, there were two progressions running throughout the book: a geometric progression, and a geographic progression.

“The story was driven by a character who sees the world through a STEM-centered lens. But I didn’t want to bog down the manuscript with “Lots of triangles on this spread,”-type notes, so my agent and I agreed that one overreaching art note at the beginning to explain the concept would do, followed by just a couple of notes on pages where the language might have been interpreted in more than one way, for clarity.

For example, on the spread that talks about Nanda’s world being the roar of twin engines and the curve of the planet beneath her, I put in a note that indicated that she was blasting off into space (as opposed to, say, taking off in an airplane).”

Ishta’s advice:

“Art notes should only be used when it’s impossible to tell the story without a specific visual cue that isn’t stated in the text. In the case of SMALL WORLD, because the text was so lyrical and soft, a note at the beginning stating that Nanda is a child for whom the shapes and patterns in nature are important was necessary.”

Read how Jen Corace met the challenges of this spectacular book!

Way #2. When the illustrations are telling a different story than the text.

In Sheri Dillard’s COWHIDE-AND-SEEK, illustrated by Jess Pauwels (Running Press Kids, 2019) Bessie the cow thinks she’s found the perfect hiding spot, but it’s obvious from the illustrations that she’s not hidden at all. Without notes, a reader of this manuscript might have misunderstood the book’s premise.

“I love the moment of surprise that can come at the turn of a page. In COWHIDE-AND-SEEK, a lot of the humor is in those moments,” says Sheri. “And even though that page-turn humor is in the illustrations, I wanted the manuscript to reflect the experience as much as possible, so I added brief art notes. Here’s an example:

And then . . .

Bessie found an even better hiding spot.

[ART:  Soccer game. Bessie is “hiding” behind the soccer ball.]

“As you can see, the text is very simple and doesn’t give any indication as to where the cow is hiding. But I love how, at the very moment the page is turned, the reader (and listeners 🙂 can see the humor of her hiding spot.”

Sheri’s advice: “Think of the person reading your manuscript and make sure they have the information they need to understand the story but don’t lose them (or the moment) by sharing unnecessary details.”

16 Words by Lisa RogersWay #3. When your manuscript contains figurative language.

When I read Bea Birdsong’s I WILL BE FIERCE, illustrated by Nidhi Chanani (Roaring Brook Press, 2019) I wondered exactly how Bea communicated to the illustrator what dangers her character was facing. Turns out that she noted her intentions for EVERY line!

“If you ask anyone in publishing whether to include art notes in your manuscript, the answer you will hear is, “Yes, but only if they are necessary,” says Bea. “This is true, but it can be difficult for beginning writers to distinguish between necessary and unnecessary art notes. For my manuscript for I Will Be Fierce, I included an art note for every line of text.”

Bea shared this example:

I will charge the many-headed serpent.

[Art: Girl getting on the school bus with kids’ heads hanging out the windows]


“The premise of the story hinges on the pairing of text with specific images, so the art notes were necessary. However, notice what this art note does not include. I did not note that it is a sunny day, that Fierce Girl carries a backpack, that there are six kids with their heads hanging out the windows, or any of the other details that show up in the final spread.”

Bea’s advice: “Ask yourself: Is this image essential to the premise of the story? If the answer is yes, then ask: Is this image obvious from the text of the story? If the answer is no, include an art note. Otherwise, you can trust your illustrator and leave it out.”

Way #4. When your story’s plot points depend upon the illustration.

In Kim Chaffee’s NOTHING WEE ABOUT ME!, illustrated by Laura Bobbiesi (Page Street Kids, 2019) her main character, Liesel, wields a ladle to work magic.

“Throughout the story, Liesel’s magical ladle turns into things that aren’t stated in the text. For example, near the story’s end, her ladle turns into a few things that are not very helpful to Liesel. None of the things the ladle changes into are stated in the text so I used an art note there to indicate what it should be.

“Also, there are moments when I added an art note to indicate Liesel’s location. At one point she is banging on doors to warn the villagers and it is important that the last door she bangs on is the castle door. I don’t state that in the text but added an art note for clarification.”

Kim’s advice:

“I tend to use art notes just to ensure clarity in places in my manuscript where I think the text might not indicate what the art should show. Use them sparingly and only where the text doesn’t indicate something important that needs (not what you want) to be in the art.”

Way #5. Create pictures with your words.

Ioana Hobai debuted as author-illustrator with LENA’S SLIPPERS (Page Street Kids, 2019) and also illustrated Annie Cronin Romano’s BEFORE YOU SLEEP: A BEDTIME BOOK OF GRATITUDE (Page Street Kids, 2018) .

“I did not feel any reluctance on the author’s part to let go of the manuscript and let me take make decisions. I remember that when I got the assignment to illustrate her manuscript, I felt such a responsibility because I thought of it as her baby.

Even though Ioana and Annie had met, Ioana says that “during the illustration process, we only communicated through the publisher. She was shown the sketch dummies at various stages of the process and she gave some input. She seemed quite happy with the way the book has turned out and that made me happy too.

Ioana’s advice:

“I know that some writers are reluctant to let go of their text but I think that they have already painted a picture when they put that story on paper. Their voice, word choices, rhythm, use of pacing, tension, point of view, etc., can suggest whether the art will be soft, dreamy, realistic, more dramatic or abstract.

“The author has created a base image that fuels the imagination of the illustrator, who wants to make the best possible book as well. The illustrator’s job is to take that base image, mold it, add to it, expand it and transform the story into something new, which will help the reader’s imagination take flight.”

That’s our goal as writers—our words boost that imaginative leap; the illustrations direct that flight into an even richer universe than we could ever imagine.

LISA ROGERS is an elementary school librarian who’s been a 12 x 12 member since 2012. Her debut picture book, 16 WORDS: WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS AND “THE RED WHEELBARROW,” (Schwartz & Wade Books) launched in September and will be followed by HOUND WON’T GO  (Albert Whitman & Company, spring 2020). Lisa lives near Boston with her family and stubborn hound dog.

Want even more information on art notes and how to use them? Check out our course on the subject, which includes examples of published books and the original manuscripts with art notes. TO ART NOTE OR NOT TO ART NOTE on our Teachable site.





This Post Has 148 Comments
  1. This is such valuable information and insights, Lisa. I’ve been working on eliminating the urge/need to insert art notes in my mss, especially after hearing Beach Lane Books VP/Publisher Allyn Johnston and beloved Australian author Mem Fox discuss the subject at this summer’s SCBWI conference in L.A.

    1. Hi Jerrianne! I always have put myself in the no art notes camp, but got the idea to interview other authors when I read their books–I couldn’t imagine how they would have gotten their ideas across without art notes. Definitely check out their books and see what you think!!

      1. Great post, Lisa. When to use art notes can be so confusing. I like the way you broke it down and also gave different examples. Can’t wait to read your books!

  2. Thank you for this reflection and for the research you must have put in. Fascinating to hear the authors’ rationales for their art notes provided with text.

  3. I found this fascinating and thought provoking. I have wrestled with how the illustrator would see my vision, but I also wanted to be respectful for their talents. Putting in an art note for the editor seems to be a good way to solve some of my questions. It is almost like another approach to the pending question of “to art note, or not to art note.”

  4. Lisa,
    The examples of how the authors used art notes are helpful. I will put each of mine to the test: is it absolutely necessary?
    Congratulations on your second book having a publishing date!

  5. Really helpful Lisa thank you. I especially liked the art notes as a way into the story”s world. Thank you for sharing your expertise and experience 🙂

  6. Your specific examples help so much to clarify when and how to use art notes. Thanks for this post, Lisa! You’ve given me additional books for my TBR list 🙂

  7. Thanks this was so helpful event he sites I visited associated with the text. Thank you for all your links and insights.

  8. I always love hearing the opinions of different authors on art notes. And reading about these specific examples was so helpful. Thank you!

  9. Thanks for sharing a variety of reasons and ways to use illustration notes. I like how you included specific examples for each of them.

  10. Sometimes you need to work with your manuscript for a long time to get clarity about whether you need art notes. Since my manuscript is nonfiction, I have decided to use an author note instead,

  11. Thank you so much for this valuable information. The examples are so helpful! I’m looking forward to reading both of your books, Lisa. Thanks for helping all of us understand more and for writing such great books for kids.

  12. I look forward to the day when I can partner with an illustrator and see my stories come to life. It’s the dream! Thanks for sharing your insight.

  13. Thank you, Lisa, for this helpful post with specific insight into art notes with great examples! You know I love your book – the words and pictures – and I can’t wait to check out what’s to come. In the meantime, I’ll see you around town or at The Loft!

  14. This is such a great post, Lisa. You provided great advice and information dealing with illustrations and art notes. Congratulations on your success!

  15. Thank you, Lisa for the great discussion on art notes. The examples of books that you cited are extremely helpful. Congratulations on your publishing success!

  16. Lisa, thanks for a really informative post. It’s great to see inside the process and find out that different approaches to art notes are needed, depending on the story. Best wishes for the success of 16 WORDS and HOUND WON’T GO!

  17. Congratulations Lisa! Thanks for this post. I love your book! William Carlos Williams is one of our favorite poets (we live in NJ). I love how beautifully & poetically you tied WCW’s neighborhood into the creation of his poem. And Chuck Groenink’s art is fabulous. So excited that he’s illustrating my next book (Let Liberty Rise, Scholastic, 2021).

  18. Thank you, Lisa. I really enjoyed reading the specific and concrete examples you shared. Congratulations on your books, and happy writing!

  19. Congratulations on your released and soon-to-be released picture books. Your research on art notes is stellar. Thanks for sharing.

  20. Thanks for the info. The more I write, the more I try to leave out description. The same goes for art notes. I have not really needed them, except in place, for example, where the illustration should show the opposite of the text. I wonder, though, would a newbie author be allowed to approve illustrations before publication?

  21. This was excellent, thank you so much! It’s always so helpful to see concrete examples from published manuscripts.

  22. Thanks for the different perspectives and examples of how and when art notes have been used. It all makes sense. And congratulations on your books!

  23. Really enjoyed your post about art notes – just goes to show there is no one way to do anything. I can see me referring to the real life examples you have given time and time again. Thank you and congratulations on your books.

  24. Thank you Lisa for sharing about art notes. I found it helpful and you confirmed what I thought. The art notes per line was surprising though!

  25. I loved all the examples–they were all very helpful in different ways. Thank you so much! You mentioned lingering over the illustrations as a child–which is something I do when reading to children, so “That’s our goal as writers—our words boost that imaginative leap; the illustrations direct that flight into an even richer universe than we could ever imagine.” is very apt.

  26. These reflections fall right in line with what I’ve learned through 12×12 and from other industry professionals, at conferences. The reminder is nice, and it helps to know that this has been the experience of our colleagues- that the “rules” of art notes hold true throughout the publication process (not just in preparing work for queries).

  27. Thanks Lisa! I appreciate the various examples. It really helps clarity an author’s choices when it comes to art notes.

  28. Thanks for analyzing those titles. Your use of concrete examples for when to use art notes and when to refrain is really helpful.

  29. Just like with most issues in life, ‘things’ must be considered individually…art notes, students, relationships, health, children, choices. Thank you Lisa, and Julie.

  30. You cleared up the advice “use art notes only when necessary”. Yes, that can be so vague. Your post helps make better sense of when to use them or not. Thank you Lisa!

  31. Thank you very much for your insight. You certainly recognized a challenging topic that many of us appreciate advice regarding it. What a fun and creative idea to collaborate with other authors from 12 x 12 too! It is fun to read their perspectives and experience. Thank you for sharing this window into the publishing process.

  32. I love the suggestions. I have a story where what the girl says about her sitter- a witch – is not what is really happening, so I kept art notes but to a minimum. However, I believe I could just leave it to the illo to interpret what she is saying and what is really happening.

  33. Thank you for this post and the examples provided within. As a new writer, in all my research I kept finding not to include art notes. However, in my WIP I felt like I needed them to tell the story. My critique group even recommended adding more. Found this post to be very reassuring.

  34. Thank you, Lisa, for sharing the examples and advice of authors regarding art notes. Congratulations on your debut book, too!

  35. Here’s to your success now, and in the future! Thank you for sharing your insights into arts notes, something most of us don’t understand. All the best!

  36. I’ve become the go-to picture book reader in my pre-k class, and when I’m not available to actually sit & tell the story I tell them to take a “picture walk” through the book. Now more than I ever I appreciate all the illustrators do! Thanks for your post, Lissa, & I’m definitely looking up “16 words”–love that title!

  37. Lisa,
    What a great post. I struggle with the art note question in every manuscript I write, so this is helpful. I love The Red Wheelbarrow and look forward to reading 16 Words!

  38. Great article! I was just putting in art notes for a PB draft I wrote this month. It felt right, but I was worried I was overstepping. Now I feel confident about my choices! Thanks!

  39. Thanks, Lisa! This is great information! I’ve heard a variety of advice about art notes but it is extremely helpful to see what individual authors have done with their notes.

  40. Thank you for this post. I am very close to submitting a work I have been revising. When I submitted it for critique at an SCBWI conference, the publisher liked the work, but said she would like to see illustrator’s notes b/c it had a lot of historical and place specific references. She asked me to revise and include illustrator notes when doing so. I was so surprised about this. I appreciate your post above though as it gives the range of doing so…

  41. Lisa, thanks for the great advice about art notes. I agree that art notes are often geared more towards the editor than the illustrator. I am an author/illustrator, and usually include art notes when sharing my manuscript with my critique group.

  42. Thank you for your insight Lisa! I have been learning a lot about whether to Art Note or Not. And I am trying really hard not to art note, unless I absolutely need to. Sincerely appreciate your time. And I love 16 Words. I loved the way you paralleled the lives of your two MCs and used poetry to connect them. Just beautiful.

  43. This was an exceptional blog post about art notes. There are always so many opinions on how to approach any aspect of writing. This really has me rethinking some things. Thanks.

  44. Artfully done, Lisa! This is the clearest explanation I’ve seen of when to use (or not) art notes. Thank you for this.

  45. Lisa,
    Your humility in your words popped out like a fresh bloom! Thank you for your candor and the extra work you did to bring so much insight to this “conundrum.”
    Best of luck with your debut and all the beautiful stories to follow.


    Kate Carroll

  46. Great examples! I usually think my limited art notes are to help the agent or eventual editor follow my story. I hope it would help the illustrator but I’d imagine they have their own visions.
    Thank you!

  47. Thank you for this post! This poem is the only thing I remember from my Poetry 101 class in college! I’m looking forward to reading your book.

  48. thanks you! If i can remember all this I will be able to “trust the illustrator”. You cleared up many questions.

  49. Thanks, Lisa, for adding to the art-note debate. I tend to have a very specific idea in my head of how I want the art to look, but I tend to shy away from using notes because I find the illustrators have such great instincts! The books always turn out better than I imagined. For my nonfiction, however, I do add brief explanations when the image should be something specific.

  50. So great to read about someone I actually “know” through our Nancy Churnin class! I want to be like you when I grow up.

  51. Thanks, Lisa! Interesting to see the range from zero to quite a few. I always wonder about notes for very sparse text, like the cow hiding behind a soccer ball—whether an illustrator would have chosen something completely different & whether that setting or note is crucial to the story.

  52. Thank you for all of these wonderful perspectives! I am not yet published, so hearing about how varied the nuts and bolts can be for each manuscript is so informative. Thank you!

  53. Thanks for giving us a nice variety of how art notes are used. This really helps with the nuances. Congrats on your books!

  54. Applause for your success! Much appreciation for your candor about Art Notes. As authors, we visualize as we write and our tendency is to try to control the illustrations with our text or our “notes.” We too often forget the brilliant creativity of our illustrators, allowing them the freedom to “dream BIG” on our pages. Sending you inspiration and energy for your continued journey in Kidlit Land.

  55. I think writers have questions about art notes because–as much as we read about how to use them–we’re often unable to translate that information into practice. You’ve offered concrete examples of how this works by SHOWING not TELLING. ❤ Thank you, Lisa.

  56. Thank you Lisa for your insightful post on art notes! There are some great nuggets in here that I will use when going over my MS’s to determine whether or not I will leave in the art note! Congratulations on your books – they sound wonderful!

  57. Lisa – I can’t wait to get the books you mentioned in your very helpful article….Great art note help! Thank you!

  58. Thanks for the commonsense tips about art notes, but even more for the ways your post illuminates the relationship between the text and art themselves.

  59. To art note or not to art note? Yes, it makes perfect sense: if it is necessary to clarify action in the story. Although, one overarching note at the top of the story could clarify everything. Thanks for the examples!

  60. As a writer-illustrator, I often feel defensive when the topic of art notes comes up, as if I don’t want a writer’s “helpful ideas” to eclipse & effectively block my own illustrative creativity. However, this super-well-done piece explains how to “do art notes right”!

  61. Lisa, thank you for sharing specific examples on when to use art notes. I appreciate the time it must have taken for you to research this information referring to recently published picture books. Your post is one I plan on reviewing.

  62. It was so good to hear from an illustrator’s perspective. I’m excited to read these books, especially with my new, insider knowledge.

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